Sodium Restriction in Patients with Reduced GFR: Blood Pressure Benefits

By Martina McGrath, MD
October 18, 2017

The typical US diet is comprised of 3.4g of sodium per day on average, whereas current recommendations suggest that sodium intake should be limited to <2g/day for the general population1 and possibly lower for those with hypertension or cardiovascular disease.2 Continue reading “Sodium Restriction in Patients with Reduced GFR: Blood Pressure Benefits”

Quality of Life & Cost-Effectiveness of Intensive Blood Pressure Lowering

By Connor Emdin
September 6, 2017

In recent years, there has been considerable shift in treatment targets for blood pressure management. In 2014, the Eighth Joint National Commission (JNC 8) guidelines controversially up-revised blood pressure targets and recommended a target blood pressure of less than 140/80mm Hg in adults less than 60 years of age, increasing to less than 150/90mm Hg in those aged over 60 years. They argued that at the time, no randomized trial had demonstrated that lower blood pressure targets were associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease or death.1 These recommendations were a cause of heated debate and were inconsistent with recommendations from several other expert bodies, including American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology. Continue reading “Quality of Life & Cost-Effectiveness of Intensive Blood Pressure Lowering”

Daily Calorie Restriction vs Alternate Day Fasting for Weight Loss

By Martina M. McGrath, MD
July 7, 2017

Alternate day fasting (ADF) is a popular weight loss method, promoted via weight loss books and media. In the most widely promoted form, participants are advised to eat ~25% of their daily caloric needs on fasting days, alternating with unrestricted intake on nonfasting days. It has been suggested that it produces more significant weight loss and greater compliance than standard caloric restriction, as daily compliance is not necessary. Continue reading “Daily Calorie Restriction vs Alternate Day Fasting for Weight Loss”

Inclisiran: A Novel Therapeutic for Long-Term Lowering of LDL Cholesterol?

By Connor Emdin
May 18, 2017

Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL cholesterol) is a leading cause of coronary heart disease and death worldwide.1 When LDL cholesterol particles become oxidized, they can invade the endothelium of blood vessels and attract macrophages, forming atherosclerotic plaques. Over a lifetime, high levels of LDL cholesterol can lead to the formation of numerous unstable atherosclerotic plaques, potentially leading to myocardial infarction, stroke, and death from cardiovascular disease (CVD).2 Continue reading “Inclisiran: A Novel Therapeutic for Long-Term Lowering of LDL Cholesterol?”

The SPRINT Study: A randomized trial of intensive versus standard blood pressure control

By Martina M. McGrath, MD
July 6, 2016

Published in November 2015, the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) study (N Engl J Med 2015;373:2103-2116) sought to address the question of the optimal blood pressure target for patients at risk of cardiovascular disease.

This randomized controlled trial examined intensive versus standard treatment of hypertension in patients aged over 50 years with systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 130-180mmHg and increased cardiovascular risk. Important groups excluded were those with diabetes, difficult-to-control blood pressure, a history of stroke, cardiovascular events or procedures within the prior 3 months, or symptomatic heart failure within the previous six months. Continue reading “The SPRINT Study: A randomized trial of intensive versus standard blood pressure control”