Teprotumumab: How Effective Is the First Drug Approved for Thyroid Eye Disease?

By Rohit Jain, B. Pharmacy, MBA, PGDBM, LL.B, DCR
November 24, 2020

Thyroid eye disease (TED) is also termed as ophthalmopathy or Grave’s orbitopathy. TED is an autoimmune condition whereby the lacrimal glands, eyelids, and periorbital muscles become inflamed. The condition is present in almost 2% of patients with thyroiditis and 25–50% of patients suffering from Grave’s Disease. Approximately 80–90% of patients with thyroid eye disease have hyperthyroidism while the rest have hypothyroidism or euthyroidism. TED leads to a constellation of symptoms and signs including conjunctival injection, lid retraction, periorbital edema, and the characteristic appearance of exophthalmos. Severe exophthalmos can cause incomplete eyelid closure with corneal exposure, resulting in dryness, and abrasions. In advanced cases of TED, enlargement of periorbital tissues may compress the optic nerve leading to partial or complete vision loss.

Continue reading “Teprotumumab: How Effective Is the First Drug Approved for Thyroid Eye Disease?”

Ravulizumab: Is it the Ultimate Treatment for Atypical Uremic Syndrome?

By Rohit Jain, B. Pharmacy, MBA, PGDBM, LL.B, DCR
January 23, 2020

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare, serious, and progressive condition characterized by thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, and renal failure. The condition occurs in both children and adults. In almost half of all the cases, the patient suffers from end-stage renal disease due to damage to tiny blood vessels in the kidney. Unlike typical hemolytic uremic syndrome (tHUS) which is related to Shiga-like toxin (E. coli), aHUS is associated with prolonged and uncontrolled activation of the complement system. Comparatively 10 times less common than tHUS, the incidence of aHUS is about 1 in 500,000 people in the United States1. Continue reading “Ravulizumab: Is it the Ultimate Treatment for Atypical Uremic Syndrome?”

Cefepime-Induced Neurotoxicity

By Martina McGrath, MD
February 20, 2018

Cefepime is a fourth generation cephalosporin with extended spectrum of coverage, including gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter and Serratia.1 It has activity against many multidrug-resistant gram negatives and is resistant to beta lactamases. Given its broad range of activity, it is a widely used and highly effective choice for hospitalized patients with a range of infections.

However, at elevated concentrations, cefepime can cross the blood-brain barrier Continue reading “Cefepime-Induced Neurotoxicity”

Inclisiran: A Novel Therapeutic for Long-Term Lowering of LDL Cholesterol?

By Connor Emdin
May 18, 2017

Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL cholesterol) is a leading cause of coronary heart disease and death worldwide.1 When LDL cholesterol particles become oxidized, they can invade the endothelium of blood vessels and attract macrophages, forming atherosclerotic plaques. Over a lifetime, high levels of LDL cholesterol can lead to the formation of numerous unstable atherosclerotic plaques, potentially leading to myocardial infarction, stroke, and death from cardiovascular disease (CVD).2 Continue reading “Inclisiran: A Novel Therapeutic for Long-Term Lowering of LDL Cholesterol?”

Severe C. Difficile Infection: Vancomycin or Metronidazole as First-Line Therapy?

By Martina M. McGrath, MD
February 16, 2017

In 2011, there were almost half a million cases of Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection in the US and 29,000 patients died from this disease.1 Initially recognized in the 1970s, a more virulent strain appeared in the early 2000s with increased associated mortality. Now one of the commonest health care-associated infections, C. diff has a disproportionate impact on patients who are frail, immunosuppressed, and malnourished. Between 15 and 50% of patients can suffer from recurrent C. diff infection, leading to increased health care costs and further risk of complications. Continue reading “Severe C. Difficile Infection: Vancomycin or Metronidazole as First-Line Therapy?”

Metformin: Meta-Analysis of Benefits in Comorbid Patients

Broadening access: Meta-analysis suggests benefits of metformin therapy in patients with comorbid kidney or heart disease.

By Martina M. McGrath, MD
February 9, 2017

Metformin is a safe, effective and well-tolerated agent, which is recommended as the first line oral hypoglycemic in treatment of newly diagnosed Type II diabetes. Its central role is underpinned by research showing reductions in long-term cardiovascular mortality in patients treated with metformin, as compared to sulphonylureas or placebo. Continue reading “Metformin: Meta-Analysis of Benefits in Comorbid Patients”