Cefepime-Induced Neurotoxicity

By Martina McGrath, MD
February 20, 2018

Cefepime is a fourth generation cephalosporin with extended spectrum of coverage, including gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter and Serratia.1 It has activity against many multidrug-resistant gram negatives and is resistant to beta lactamases. Given its broad range of activity, it is a widely used and highly effective choice for hospitalized patients with a range of infections.

However, at elevated concentrations, cefepime can cross the blood-brain barrier Continue reading “Cefepime-Induced Neurotoxicity”

Inclisiran: A Novel Therapeutic for Long-Term Lowering of LDL Cholesterol?

By Connor Emdin
May 18, 2017

Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL cholesterol) is a leading cause of coronary heart disease and death worldwide.1 When LDL cholesterol particles become oxidized, they can invade the endothelium of blood vessels and attract macrophages, forming atherosclerotic plaques. Over a lifetime, high levels of LDL cholesterol can lead to the formation of numerous unstable atherosclerotic plaques, potentially leading to myocardial infarction, stroke, and death from cardiovascular disease (CVD).2 Continue reading “Inclisiran: A Novel Therapeutic for Long-Term Lowering of LDL Cholesterol?”

Severe C. Difficile Infection: Vancomycin or Metronidazole as First-Line Therapy?

By Martina M. McGrath, MD
February 16, 2017

In 2011, there were almost half a million cases of Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection in the US and 29,000 patients died from this disease.1 Initially recognized in the 1970s, a more virulent strain appeared in the early 2000s with increased associated mortality. Now one of the commonest health care-associated infections, C. diff has a disproportionate impact on patients who are frail, immunosuppressed, and malnourished. Between 15 and 50% of patients can suffer from recurrent C. diff infection, leading to increased health care costs and further risk of complications. Continue reading “Severe C. Difficile Infection: Vancomycin or Metronidazole as First-Line Therapy?”

Metformin: Meta-Analysis of Benefits in Comorbid Patients

Broadening access: Meta-analysis suggests benefits of metformin therapy in patients with comorbid kidney or heart disease.

By Martina M. McGrath, MD
February 9, 2017

Metformin is a safe, effective and well-tolerated agent, which is recommended as the first line oral hypoglycemic in treatment of newly diagnosed Type II diabetes. Its central role is underpinned by research showing reductions in long-term cardiovascular mortality in patients treated with metformin, as compared to sulphonylureas or placebo. Continue reading “Metformin: Meta-Analysis of Benefits in Comorbid Patients”